One of the most striking characteristics of modern science has been the increasing trend towards closer co-operation between scientists and scientific institutions all over the world.



What have been the reasons for this One of the factors has already been discussed in Unit 5,i. e. the growing complexity and widening scope of present-day research,which has resulted in the creation of large organizations employing great numbers of scientists and technologists in programmes of directed,research. This has inevitably led to the extension of many items of research beyond national boundaries.


The most important factor,however,has been the magnitude of the problems to be solved. In. fact,it is becoming more and more evident that many of the problems affecting the world today cannot be solved except by the pooling of scientific effort and material resources on a world-wide scale. The exploration of space,world finance and the development of new sources of power,such as atomic energy ~these are examples of areas of scientific research which are so costly and complicated that no single country or organization,working by itself,can hope to tackle them efficiently.


A third powerful reason has been the increasing political and economic interdependence of nations,both rich and poor. This has had a direct effect on large areas of scientific and technological investigation,such as those connected with armaments ,communications,health,agriculture,economic planning and sociological research.


As a result of the conditions outlined above,international co-operation,has been,greatly intensified during the last 20 years,largely owing to the initiative of the United Nations Organization (U. N. O.) and its specialized agencies,in particular the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization. (UNESCO). Thus the most urgent problem for many parts of the world,i. e. food production, is being dealt with by the Food and Agriculture Organization (F. A. O.). The World Health Organization. (W. H. O.),another U. N. agency,not only coordinates many research projects on medicine all over the world,but supplies advice and aid in the control of diseases in underdeveloped areas. Technical and economic assistance is provided by other U. N. bodies such as the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)or the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) and similar agencies for other regions of the world.


Apart from the international agencies controlled by the U. N.,many scientific and technological organizations,both governmental and privately owned,are pooling their resources and incorporating themselves into supra-national bodies: a good example is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development,with over 20 member-countries throughout the world. Universities,too,are tending to develop joint research projects with their counterparts in other parts of the world,and finally,many scientific disciplines have had,for a long time past,? their own international unions and associations whose main functions are the dissemination of information,the co-ordination of research and the standardization of measurements and nomenclature?


Science,then,seems to be playing? a major role in the creation of the 'One World'? of the statesmen's dreams.


注 释

1. and是并列连词,通常译作“和”、“与”、“并且”等,但and译法灵活,如This kind of alloy is hard and strong. 可译成:这种合金又硬又坚固。and所连接的词或句,尽管在语法上是并列关系,但从意思上或逻辑上讲,还有其它的关系,尤其当and连接动词或分句时,可表示目的、结果、条件等,译法自然也随之而异。有时甚至不必译出。例如:They may come and meet you at the airport and they may not. 他们也许来机场接你,但也许不来。(句中and分别表示目的和转折)Hydrogen combines with oxygen and forms water. 氢气和氧气化合便生成水。(结果)Try once more and you will succeed. (如果)你再试一次就会得到成功。(原句相当于If you try once more,you will succeed. )

2. 介词between作“在…之间”讲时,介词宾语一般有三种情况:①…between A and B(A,B常为单数名词);②…between+复数名词或代词;③…between+数词+名词。但本句不宜译成“科学家和科研机构之间的合作,”因为统观全文,讲的主要是各国科研机构之间的国际合作,上述译法,就单句看,似乎没错,从全文主旨看,不妥。而科研机构之间的合作,同时也是科学家之间的合作。可见,翻译一个句子,往往还要考虑到一段甚至全文的意思。

3. this是代词,可以代替上文中的一个名词、词组甚至一个句子。使用代词的目的之一,是为了避免行文重复,但在译成汉语时,为了明确起见,往往仍需将代词还原成所指代的名词。例如本句可译为“形成这一趋势的原因是什么呢?”又如:Speed of light is much greater than that of sound. 句中代词that译成所代名词speed. 又,句中介词for译成了动词“形成”,词类转换也是英译汉中常用的方法之一。

4. employ in是短语动词,作“雇用或聘请什么人做什么事”讲。

5. 有人将此句译成:这已不可避免地使许多研究项目延伸到国界以外。另一译文是:这必然导致许多科研项目的发展超越国界。这两种译文都拘泥于the extension of…beyond…的字面解释,我们不能说“科研项目延伸(或超越)国界以外。”这一段讲的是各国科研日趋国际合作的第一个原因(即现代科学研究日益复杂,规模不断扩大),也就是本句主语This所指代的内容,所以“超越国界”应理解为“有许多科研项目是难以在一国之内完成的,”因此可以译成“…跨国进行研究。”

6. except此处是介词,意为除非;除…之外,它后面可以接介词短语甚至用that,when等引出的从句作它的宾语。例如:I go to work every day except on Sundays. I know nothing about him except that he is a doctor. 原文中by the pooling of…是一个介词短语。

7 these are examples of areas of scientific research…此处areas不能译作“领域”,而仍作“项目items”讲,因为后面定语从句中的Which和全句末的代词them(两者都指代areas)均不能作“领域”讲,在这里我们不能说“耗资巨大的领域”,也不能说“解决(tackle)领域”,而只能作“项目”、“课题”讲才译得通。

8. 在英语和汉语中,形容词和名词的搭配习惯不尽相同,不可勉强照译,如把a third powerful reason译成“第三个有力的原因”就不大合乎汉语习惯说法,powerful不妨改成“重要的,重大的”。又如strong current强电流;如果指水流,则可说“急流”;strong wine烈(性)酒;strong tea浓茶。

9. conditions在这里译成“条件”显然是错了,作“情况”是对的,其实,用conditions;可视为修辞性换词,实际上还是指reasons,所以译成“原因”、“因素”就更贴切一些。

10. production生产;产量。由于世界粮食问题主要还是产量问题,故food production以译作“粮食产量”为好。

11. for a long time past这里past是形容词,作后置定语修饰time,意为“已经过去的”,整个介词短语是“已”的意思,不能译成“经过了一段时间”。又如for some time past早些时候。

12. nomenclature(术语)命名。

13. 系动词seem要求后面接动词不定式作表语(带to或省略),这里to be playing是不定式的进行时态。

14. “One World”是世界主义(cosmopolitanism)的一种说法,意为“四海一家”,有人译成“一统世界”。现代汉语词典对“世界主义”的解释是:现代资产阶级妄图统治世界的一种反动理论,主张消除民族界限,组织所谓世界政府…